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Mori 2A: Deep drawing simulation with Deform software

Mori 2A in collaboration with ECOTRE VALENTE carried out a deep drawing simulation of a sink. This analysis allows you to thoroughly examine all the phenomena that come into action during the drawing process, virtually sample and have all the information for setting up a compliant and optimal work cycle.
Thanks to the deep drawing tests carried out in DEFORM, Mori 2A can produce its sinks on the computer and know their performance and quality: required tons, shape, defects, wrinkles, cracks and elastic return.
Article in Italian

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Die Insert Redesign with DEFORM

DEFORM was used to simulate the forming of the hex-head flange screw blank.
The stresses during forming were subsequently used to predict the effort and deflection of the equipment components. To study the matrix effectively, it is necessary to include the interaction between the matrix and the keying. The original matrix consisted of a hard metal insert and jacket.
DEFORM was used to perform a subsequent matrix stress analysis at the stage where the highest load was observed.

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DEFORM: A software to combat expensive energy

Ecotre Valente from Brescia proposes DEFORM to optimize costs through process simulations
Not only reductions in shiftwork and production in the lower cost ranges, energy savings can also come from a simple one software.
A popular saying goes that "necessity sharpens the wits", meaning that when you are in critical conditions it is a process of nature find new solutions to problems, and in this case to costs.
Precisely in the face of the expensive energy Ecotre Valente, it has decided to offer its customers a new weapon represented by the software DEFORM for the simulation of energy consumption in furnaces...
Article in Talian

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Highest quality cast iron castings with ProCAST. The IRONCASTING case

THE CHALLENGE
Produce a knuckle in GJS 500-7 with a weight of 41,5 kg. The dimensions of the flask are 1100 x 900 x 700 mm.
Meet the customer’s quality standard by delivering high excellent casts, with complex geometry and tight tolerance.
Ironcastings aim to precisely solve residual stress problems predicting and optimizing microstructure, mechanical properties and porosity formation along with maximum efficiency during foundry process (metal yield maximization) leading to production cost reduction, for example reducing weight of cores.
All these goals have been reached without modify the part geometry.

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Fonderia Morini: 78 kg molecular seal. From paper to piece in 30 days

FONDERIA MORINI - Leader in Europe in the foundry sector, specializes in the production of aluminum and aluminum alloy castings with sand casting technology, alongside the Gravity Die Casting Foundry Division. Co-design and definition of the casting system and uprights guided by the simulation of casting on the single piece
Article in Italian

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PentaP: complete support for sheet metal forming with DEFORM

PentaP supports die makers through the service of virtualization of the forming process, or the FEM simulation through the use of software DEFORM, distributed exclusively in Italy by Ecotre Valente of Brescia. “The results obtained are a lot interesting and allow our customers to evaluate immediately what are the intrinsic problems of a forming, with a very high reliability, the results they are close to reality ”, underlines the owner.

Ecotre Valente offers solutions to metallurgical and quality problems with the partner PentaP Srl of Bergamo: www.pentap.it

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NICRO: Radiant tube forming with DEFORM

This study illustrated how DEFORM-3D predicted the influence of process parameters and geometric features on final product quality. The redevelopment project achieved the following objectives that led to reduced production costs.
• Cracking was eliminated and wrinkles were avoided in the final product.
• The robust design allowed for less stringent material requirements on the Alloy 601 sheet stock.
• Use of standard sheet stock increased flexibility in production scheduling and reduced costs, since the standard material was often on hand.
• The number of stamping operations was reduced from three to two, which shortened the production cycle time.
• Continuous processing eliminated the need for in-process inventory.
• Machine tooling and setup time were reduced.
• Overall delivery time was improved.

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Eliminate scrap and defects with simulation

The webinar dedicated to the novelties in the simulation of hot and cold forming, coining, drawing, shearing, rolling, forging, drawing, extrusion, welding with the new software DEFORM 2021 and organized by the Brescia-based company will be held on Thursday 1 July 2021.
Article in Italian

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Grain flow in Forgings – Software DEFORM

Our main focus was on closed die forging for the previous items in this series. In this, however, we will consider preforms and large components, which are often produced by open molding.

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Simulation software for ingot casting, forging, shape rolling and heat treatment

The metallurgical sector is experiencing a time of change with the demand for increasingly complex components, light, performing and high performance. The new software QuikCAST Light, QuikCAST, ProCAST 2021 and DEFORM 12.1 support steel mills, forgers, calibrators, foundries, die makers, metallurgists and designers, as they virtualize their own process and create a virtual department in which to try in advance the equipment, the production cycle and execute a preview of the quality control on the product. up to to any heat treatment and mechanical processing final providing information related to quality, properties mechanical and structural features of the product.

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Dimensional Verification with GOM Inspect Professional using ProCAST

Simulation software programs for casting identify metallurgical defectiveness, mechanical properties and deformations of parts, and are fundamental for operating in a market that requires the rapid manufacture of difficult pieces, and which leaves no room for mistakes, testing or re-sampling. ECOTRE Valente, specialists in the simulation of metallurgical processes, use GOM Inspect Professional for the dimensional analysis of virtual pieces, in order to predict and rectify the onset of problems linked to shrinkage and warpage.

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All the advantages of die casting simulation

Thanks to the casting simulation software, it is possible to design without shrinkage cavities and increase the performance of diecastings.
Casting simulation is now widely used in various foundry applications and is essential in production as it reduces time, development costs and product cycle.

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Virtual Foundry: a European center for correcting casting defects

BRESCIA. The first Central European was born for the virtual foundry 4.0, thanks to Ecotre Valente Cutting-edge technologies in direct collaboration with Esi Group Germany, colossus of the software.
Article in Italian

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ESI ProCAST for Increasing the Productivity of Gravity Casting and HPDC

ESI Group, specialist in material physics, has developed a unique proficiency in helping industrial manufacturers replace physical prototypes by virtually replicating the fabrication, assembly and testing of products in different environments.
Today, coupled with Virtual Reality, animated by systems models, and benefiting from data analytics, Virtual Prototyping becomes immersive and interactive: ESI’s clients can bring their products to life, ensuring reliable performance, serviceability and maintainability.

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Reflectors on the diecasting. Large dies and high technical complexity

Simone Gentiletti, technical sales engineering of M.C.S. Facchetti, in this interview, addresses various issues related to the diecasting sector and its operating dynamics, in light of the current situation and its developments
Article in Italian

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Alloys and processes for diecasting: recent research directions

As you know the University, that of Brescia in particular, for years has been offering a teaching service aimed at what are the realities of our territory so there are courses on foundry, in particular on diecasting, courses on non-ferrous metals with particular attention to 'aluminum and zinc alloys together with foundry and metallurgy laboratories
Article in Italian

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Integrating Casting Porosity Predictions in Crash Tests

Alcan, BMW and ESI Group have successfully validated the potential benefits of a coupled product/process engineering approach based on crash and cast coupling with correlation of simulation and experimental results.
Casting Process Simulation
To account for the effects of the production process, the first step in the current approach is a casting process simulation in order to predict the uneven distribution of mechanical properties, and particularly the porosity distribution within a given aluminum die cast part. Comparison of numerical porosity predictions (obtained with ProCAST) with CTscans and micrographs show a good match.

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Jegan uses ProCAST to optimize its HPDC process

"ProCAST and QuikCAST give us the ability to see the injection as if we were inside the die. With ProCAST we have been able to reduce the number of physical tests, which means a reduction in time and costs."
Bart Goes
Director of Jegan

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FMB: from design… to defect-free casting

Defects? No thank you. Probably the flaw is a feature of the real world, as opposed to everything that is ideal and, consequently, perfect. However, there is a but: if the defect exists and cannot be completely eliminated, it is also true that it can be contained and reduced to acceptable values. Therefore, the primary objective of each foundry is to produce castings consistent with specifications, free from defects.
Article in Italian

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The 2M Project: part 2 – LPDC simulation

The aim of the project is to produce automotive structural components with thicknesses reduced from 4 to 2 mm through the use of innovative LPDC and gravity casting systems and vacuum dies, real-time monitoring and closed-loop logic management.

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Similor Kugler Faucet: low pressure simulation brass faucets

Similor Kugler Faucet was able to solve shrinkage porosities thanks to simulation with ProCAST

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ProCAST shows the stress and microstructure of an alloy wheel

The mesh, to Finite Elements, it is automatic and, in a few minutes, it allows the operator to set the foundry parameters. It is important to underline that ProCAST is based on technology constructive to the Elements finished. Indeed, this technique is the only one that guarantees the best accuracy and correspondence between the foundry and the simulation.

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Method for making a upright holder: from gravity casting to LPDC

This thesis work has the purpose of providing a methodology of comparison between two different casting technologies, for the realization of a hub holder of a car suspension unit, both from the point of view of the mechanical characteristics of the piece obtained, and from the economic point of view, through:
1) analysis of the industrialization of the upright holder obtained by gravity casting;
2) the formulation of hypotheses to adapt the piece to the design constraints of low pressure technology, resulting in the performance of casting tests using a casting simulation software.

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Optimization of the straightening production process using ProCAST

Case study of a motorcycle swingarm produced by the Fonderia Scacchetti Leghe Leggere. It is important that the designer is aware of the residual stresses present in each area of the component.
Article in Italian

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For Nissin Kogyo, ESI ProCAST is an Indispensable Tool for Assuring Production Quality

”Before the introduction of ESI ProCAST, the percentage of defects was relatively high, leading to a smaller yield. It was impossible to accept this with an increase in production and the diversification of products. We were able to reduce the percentage of defects to a very large extent thanks to a high accuracy simulation tool like ProCAST.”
Mr. Katsuhiko Ashida
Chief Engineer, Development Operations
Nissin Kogyo Co. Ltd

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Let’s make future lighter: the “2 mm” project

In the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the University of Brescia, in collaboration with the OMR companies (Officine Meccaniche Rezzatesi) and FMB the foundry of the group, a research has recently been carried out, part of the project called “2 mm”, related to the effects of the exposition in temperature on components made in thermal treated aluminum alloy for the automotive sector ...

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Gravity Die Casting Process Die Design and Process Optimisation

ProCAST a FEM simulation based virtual casting environment for analysis of casting process is used as a tool for die design and process optimization.
ProCAST, QuikCAST and QuikCAST Light simulation software help the designer visualize metal flow in the die cavity, temperature changes, solidification progress and the evolution of defects such as shrinkage porosity, cold shrinkage, cracking hot and so on.

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Structural components with Vacuum Technology in HPDC, LPDC and Gravity Die-Casting

PROJECT MIUR “2mm” (Part 1 of 2) – Project Goal
Weight reduction and mechanical properties increase for automotive structural components cast in light metal alloy in Gravity Die Casting and LPDC.
Aim of the project is to produce automotive structural components for space frame with thickness reduced from 4 to 2mm by the use of innovative low pressure and gravity die casting plants and dies with vacuum, real time monitoring and closed loop logic management. Research and tuning of an optimal aluminum alloy suitable both for gravity die casting and LPDC.
Casting simulations will define alloy composition, component design, gating and evacuation system, heating die, process parameters and best fitting equipment.

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Cornille Havard Foundry improves its productivity thanks to QuikCAST

BENEFITS . To trade in empiricism for a more accurate numerical approach of the casting process;
. Better knowledge and control of the casting alloy and process;
. Higher quality of the cast bell;
. Early design for manufacturing

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Renault improves yield and produces over 520 more parts per hour

Benefits
Using ESI QuikCAST, part of ESI’s casting solution, Renault was able to enhance competitiveness, reduce development time and cost and improve product quality. Most importantly they increased their know-how of filling and feeding systems for casting and established new production design methodology.

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Modeling the heat treatment of ausferritic ductile iron

Ausferritic ductile iron (ADI) combines the freedom of the molding style of cast iron with the strengths of steel. ADI forms by heat treatment of nodular cast iron. To take full advantage of the technical potential of this material, extensive controls of the casting and the heat treatment processes are required. The authors describe an integrated approach of experimental studies and modelling for optimum process design. The simulation tools developed permit exact predictions of the microstructure due to the heat treatment. If certain suitable technical parameters are observed, an ausferritic microstructure without pearlite, martensite and bainite can be obtained. The parts produced had very good reproducible mechanical properties distinctly better than the applicable limits

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Inasmet-Tecnalia standardizes the quality of large-size cast iron castings

Benefits:
Foundry:
. Suppression/reduction of physical trials
. Reduction of recovering and rejecting causes
. Enhanced understanding of process capability
. Casting/process optimization
. Better fit with customer requirements
Customer:
. Effective and early design for manufacturing

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QuikCAST, solution for accurate prediction of micro shrinkage risks

THE BENEFIT
. Deliver realistic predictions at each step of the casting process
. Optimize the filling and solidification phases
. Minimize thickness and weight of the part
. Improve metallurgical quality
Choosing QuikCAST, a comprehensive physics-based software package to perform casting of a new brake calliper, the Azterlan research institute achieved the goal to improve the metallurgical quality without modifying the part geometry. The part was manufactured with spheroidal cast iron, of GGG50-7 quality, using a vertical molding machine that produces 300 molds per hour.

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Fonderia Casati: Deformation of exhaust manifolds

Fonderia Casati based in Varese, specialised in the production of exhaust manifolds and of turbines for European and Eastern market, invested a lot in casting simulation. In fact, they bought simulator ProCAST, complete with advanced module of stress and of portable module ViewCAST. Thanks to this module of stress, besides the traditional filling and solidification, it is possible to preview the deformations that the manifold is subjected to during the solidification and cooling, to measure, in a precise way, the deviations and to verify that the dimensions comply with the required specifications.

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AREVA makes a Breakthrough in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation for Optimal Safety

. Ever-enhanced safety: simulate completely and accurately large nuclear components
. Optimal quality and applicability of simulation for leaders in nuclear power
. Hardware solutions with the most computational power ever on the market at affordable cost of ownership
. Precise and efficient dimensioning analyses and behavior simulations

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Epcor produces quality parts faster than their competitor

Using ESI QuikCAST virtual casting solution, Epcor was ableto evaluate alternative die designs at a fraction of the standard development time and cost to deliver higher quality parts to their customer, and be faster than the competition. They successfully achieved a 98% first time through put for the initial parts.

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ACTech: Sand Casting Aluminum simulation of Helicopter Transmission Case


Sand Casting – Aluminium
Helicopter Transmission Case
Filling - Solidification - Stresses - Deformations

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Zero scrap and reduction of risers in steel castings

1. The Italia castings are characterized by very high quality and have extreme supply specifications
2. The time available is minimal and it is not allowed to make a mistake in the merger
3. It is possible to meet these requirements, with these times and minimize costs by giving the great experience and knowledge of the Foundry the Virtual Sampling of the casting simulation software. Excellent alignment “ProCAST Software Results” with “Reality”
4. Co design and definition of the casting system and uprights guided by the simulation of casting on the piece alone
Article in Italian

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ProCAST helps Umicore tune the manufacturing process of a thin-walled zinc safety spool

THE BENEFITS:
Validate the manufacturing tool of a foundry component and successfully move to production
Investigate the feasibility of a difficult thin-walled component while ensuring in-service performance of the product
Cost savings for tool development and production Allow decision-making early in the design phase

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Swerea SWECAST AB succeeds in developing thin-walled steel castings using ProCAST

THE BENEFITS:
• The component wall thickness was reduced from 6mm to 3.5mm
• Casting weight was reduced significantly.
• 30% reduction in the total production cost

"During this project we used ProCAST software and that gave us the possibility to simulate & optimize thin-walled steel castings. ProCAST is a very competent software, when it comes to simulate thinwalled geometries"
Per Ytterell,
Managing Director (participant in the project, supplier of this steel component),
Smålands Stålgjuteri AB, Sweden

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DSB EURO boosts its productivity with ProCAST and support from MECAS ESI

“The objective of DSB EURO is to satisfy the requirements of our customers regarding the quality of our products at the highest level.
ProCAST helps us not only to enhance the quality of our castings but also to ensure a better competitiveness. Using ProCAST enables us to deliver castings on time and to cut back unnecessary and repeated rework operations. Finally, thanks to ProCAST we received the “European Quality Award” in 2008 which opens up opportunities for new cooperation.”
Ing. Pavel Veselý
Production Director, DSB EURO s.r.o.

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Prediction of grain structures during the solidification of superalloys in the foundry

The C.A.F.E module for metal simulation foresees the germination and therefore the growth of the grains and, allows to obtain a high sensitivity of the prediction of grain defects in solidification.
Article in French

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Metalcast improves Investment Casting with simulation solution ProCAST

THE CHALLENGE
Metalcast is casting increasingly complex parts in alloys that are difficult to cast. Yet Metalcast's customers expect them to continually meet their strict quality specifications and at the same time maintain or reduce product development time and expenses.
THE BENEFITS
. Multiple design iterations via simulation to reach an optimal design thereby reducing shop floor trials;
. Reduction in product development times;
. Rejections reduced from 25% to 3% on a valve body casting part.

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European Aerospace Microfusions uses ESI software for optimization

Thanks to the development of dedicated techniques over the last two decades, investment casting modeling with ESI’s software has become reliable and efficient to optimize safety components such as turbine blades for jet engines. The solution includes dedicated superalloy material databases and ceramics characterization allowing very accurate predictions.

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Critical issues in modelling investment casting

Reduce part development lead-times by a better knowledge of process and an early confi rmation of metallurgical capabilities is one of the main topics for investment casting technology.
Numerical simulation is one of the major tools which can be used to face this goal. This e-tip illustrates a simulation methodology usable to optimize a casting design in an efficient and rapid way.

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Inegi uses ProCAST to manufacture customized hip prostheses

“Scientific methods can always save us time and cost. ProCAST is just that tool helping foundry men find the right solutions.
For investment casting process, ProCAST can generate different layers of shells and with wrapping outside. This helps predict the temperature field more precisely.”
Nannan Song,
Senior Researcher
Advanced Foundry and Rapid Prototyping Technologies, Inegi

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Wax Injection Module – ProCAST Software

Over the years, the need to simulate the wax injection department has also emerged. ESI has developed a dedicated module, capable of virtualizing Non-Newtonian materials, waxes and has introduced the "PRO-S-38-Flow Solver-Non-Newtonian" module.

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Investment Casting Simulation with ProCAST

Advanced casting simulation tools like Procast™ allow the foundry engineer to quickly bridge the gap between design and manufacturing. Optimisation or improved efficiency during the manufacturing cycle leads to substantial time and cost savings. Computer analysis provides the means for verifying design ideas and viewing the effects of “what ifs” at minimal costs by avoiding time-consuming and expensive rework and retooling.

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State of the art in modelling of continuous casting

Numerical simulation tools for continuous casting processes have recently been enriched with a new innovative technique based on a Mixed Lagrangian Eulerian Method (further noted as MiLE) implemented in the finite element software ProCAST. In order to treat non-steady phenomena in continuous casting, one has to consider an extending computation domain ...

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Continuous casting simulation with ProCAST Software

ProCAST allows to calculate stress and deformation and therefore also the gap formation between casting and mould.
Figure 2 shows the important facts for the heat transport between interfaces and also the tasks which are solved by the ProCAST approach.
Since the meshes of the casting and the mould are both deformed in function of the temperature it is not only necessary to find the elements which are facing each other by the non coincident interface algorithm but also to ...

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SIMTech achieves unprecedented Liquid Forging simulation on aluminum heat sinks using ProCAST

THE BENEFITS . Improved part quality;
. Reduced development phase;
. Savings in energy, material and tooling modification costs;
. Tool design and process optimization with simulation, allowing development of best fit conditions for real-time manufacturing

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Understanding the Lost Foam Casting Process

The lost foam casting process has been successfully simulated using process modelling software, taking into account the burn-out of the pre-form foam pattern, the thermal heat transfer across the pyrolytic zone, the influences of the ceramic coating as well as the transport of gasses from the pyrolytic zone through the mould.

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Lost foam casting process model in ProCAST

This paper presents several case studies on the use of ProCAST in lost foam simulation
The Lost Foam Casting process eliminates the need for sand binders and cores. The sand is unbounded and a foam pattern is used to form the shape of the casting. Foam patterns are created from polystyrene beads. The beads start as hard granules, very similar in size and shape to sand granules. The beads are expanded after they are injected into the desired shape.

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J. Walter Miller Company makes a smooth technological transition with QuikCAST

“This problem would have taken about 12 weeks and $6,000 in pattern changes plus countless hours of machine time to solve using conventional trial and error methods. With QuikCAST, we can easily solve similar problems in 2 weeks and produce a good pattern the first time. We have used simulation on about 20 parts to date and the simulation results are similar to what we see in the shop."
Dan Rudolph
Quality Engineer
J. Walter Miller Company

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Hot Tearing Simulation – Software ProCAST

CHAPTER 5
Simulation of the casting process
Introduction
In order to characterize the behavior and the Hot Tearing tendency of the light alloys chosen for our investigation, we used one of the most popular casting simulation software, ProCAST®, produced by the French ESI Group, used in the complete version of stress module, thanks to the kind collaboration offered by the Italian distributor ECOTRE.
Article in Italian

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Feeding optimization in gravity casting using ProCAST simulation

The goal of this e-tip is to illustrate the simulation methodology in case of gravity casting. In order to optimize a casting design in an efficient way, it is recommended to proceed the simulation step by step:
1) casting solidification only
2) positioning of the risers
3) filling study
4) experimental validation

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Centrifugal casting: Casting of large titanium structures

Modelling of porosity in centrifugal casting. An important aspect of the new casting modeling capabilities integrated in ESI casting solution ProCAST capability of taking into account the centrifugal forces on the porosity formation.
The modelling capabilities developed in COLTS were integrated in the commercial software package ProCAST. By this the aeronautic and space industry is provided with a professional software solution to further produce such complex titanium parts with a well controlled casting process.

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The manufacturing of sand cores – Software QuikCAST Light and QuikCAST

In the simulation software QuikCAST Light and QuikCAST there is the simulation module for shooting and gassing cores.
By simulating the process, it is possible to gain a better understanding of these interactions and significantly reduce the lengthy development phase of trial and error, similar to what happened in the 1990s with the simulation of the casting process.

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Core blowing simulation blowing and gassing: A European project

The OPTIBLOW project was ordered by the European Commission under the "Competitive and Sustainable Growth" program (1998-2002) and was coordinated by CTI - Castings Technology International (UK).
This project was born following the numerous and ever-increasing requests of Italian and European foundries and core blowers to solve the age-old problem of core production.
Article in Italian

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Modeling of Residual Stress and Machining Distortion in Aerospace Components

Significant improvements in manufacturing processes have been made by process simulation tools such as DEFORM (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp.). In the inverse calculation, the error between the measured shear forces and the forces predicted by DEFORM is minimized using an optimization approach. DEFORM is able to simulate the mechanical machining process in transient or stationary mode.

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Simulation of Chip Geometry – Software DEFORM

Prof. Ceretti and her coworkers at the University of Brescia in Italy validated the use of 3D simulations in 1999, comparing the results of a DEFORM™-3D orthogonal turning simulation to previously validated DEFORM™-2D plane strain simulations.
Subsequent simulations were conducted to replicate the oblique cutting experiments performed by Ueda at Kobe University in Japan. The simulation results correlated well with the published experimental results.

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Tool wear during machining – Software DEFORM

DEFORM™-2D has been used by researchers to implement wear models that relate tool wear to temperature, stresses and the sliding velocities that occur at the tool/chip and tool/workpiece interfaces. Based on the experimental wear data and the prediction of process variables by DEFORM™-2D, successful prediction of tool wear and tool life has been reported from Ohio State University.
In this work, a combination of measured and simulated values were used to predict the constants of a Usui’s (Usui, 1978) wear equation. The wear rate equation used in this study is given as follows.

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Cutting Force Prediction – Software DEFORM

Continuing advances in high performance cutting have placed ever increasing demands on cutting tools.
The design of these cutting tools influences the efficiency of material removal as well as the surface finish of the part.
New computer simulation technology reduces the amount of experimentation needed to test and optimize a new cutting tool, and thereby improves performance and time to market.

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Redesign of a Face Mill Insert – Software DEFORM

Kennametal used DEFORM™-3D simulation in conjunction with an experiment to study the effect of redesigns on a milling cutter insert.
The FIX PERFECT milling cutter with Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) tipped inserts is a standard Kennametal product. It is used for machining aluminum alloys in the automotive and general machining market segment

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Heat Treatment simulation Grain Size Prediction – Software DEFORM

Carmel Forge, Israel, manufactures a wide range of titanium and nickel based alloy forgings for the jet engine and power generation industries. Carmel Forge uses DEFORM-2D, with the Microstructure module for their process development and optimization.
DEFORM has helped Carmel Forge to optimize their forging processes, lower production costs and significantly reduce the lead time between order placement and delivery of products.

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Heat Treat Distortion: Carbocementation deformations – Software DEFORM

Predicting and managing heat treatment distortion of complex parts is a huge challenge. DEFORM-HT is a powerful tool for simulating heat treatment processes. The system predicts heat treat distortion, residual stresses and phase volume fraction.
Heat treatment modeling helps to achieve hardness and strength requirements while minimizing heat treat distortion and residual stresses.
Kistler-IGeL GmbH, the DEFORM distributor in Germany, worked with Rob. Bosch GmbH, DaimlerChrysler AG, Institute of Material Science and Engineering of Karlsruhe and other partners on a Computer Aided Simulation of Heat Treatment project (CASH), funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The objective was to establish a modeling methodology for the heat treatment of complex parts.

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Simulation of Induction Hardening – Software DEFORM

The DEFORM™ predicted temperature-time variations at the exit of the coil were very close to those measured via optical pyrometer in the actual process.
Applying boundary conditions to lock one end of the shaft and allow the other end to move freely facilitated the prediction of axial dilatation.
Predictions from DEFORM™-HT can provide designers and metallurgists with valuable information on the scanning induction hardening process. Shaft temperature, case depth, residual stresses and resultant distorted geometry are just some of the results available from simulation.
In addition, induction coil design can be facilitated by the DEFORM™-HT system.

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Metal heat treatment: Quench Cracking Simulation – Software DEFORM

DEFORM™-HT provides the environment for simulating quench processes and highlighting the susceptibility of cracking. Modified alloy composition, quenchant properties and process conditions may be analyzed on the computer without interrupting production schedules. In addition, fracture mechanics may be incorporated to determine the mode of failure of the cracking.

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Quench distortion of keyed shaft – Software DEFORM

Quench distortion during heat treatment is a commonly encountered problem in metal processing industries. It is considered extremely complex and is attributed to material and thermal properties of the workpiece, and quenchant properties. Phase transformations in steels further complicate the phenomenon.
It was observed that during quenching, steel shafts tended to distort more severely if they contained keyways. Non-uniform cooling due to the nonaxisymmetric geometry may have been responsible for inducing the additional distortion.

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Coining of a coin – Software DEFORM

the DEFORM Simulation Software is the only one of its kind capable of replicating the coining of a coin, without wasting material and with real results.
....

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Mechanical loads originating from filling: core deformation

Vehicles lightening is a common goal to all car manufacturers, with the aim to improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions.
It is not always easy, however, to reconcile the use of light alloys and conventional forming or casting technologies with the need to manufacture structural or engine components, with thin walls, complex shapes and adequate mechanical properties.

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Optimisation of the thixoforming process by numerical modelling

Numerical modelling of mould filling and of solidification has been used for the optimisation of thixoforming production moulds. Rheological data and boundary conditions for the modelling were deduced from several sets of instrumented experiments. The simulation results could be correlated with several types of known defects. Using this simulation tool for the identification of potential defects, the geometries of gates, parts, overflows and vents have been optimised.

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The numerical simulation thixocasting with ProCAST

Numerical modeling has been used successfully as an efficient tool for converting a gravity-cast brake caliper into a thixocasting process. Procast's thixo module was used for the modeling process to achieve optimal processing parameters. The jet results show excellent correlation with the fluid dynamics and flow pattern of the model. The level and position of porosities, revealed by non-destructive X-ray and microscopic analyzes, showed a good correlation with model prediction

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Casting simulation drives component development for HPDC

High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) enables manufacturing of large thin-walled light-weight structural components.
To remain competitive in the new global marketplace, component manufacturers in the automotive and aeronautic industries are constantly being asked to increase efficency while lowering production costs and shortening delivery times. This request from OEMs for product solutions with low energy consumption, in tandem with new requirements by the government for increase full efficency, can be satisfied using light metals such as aluminum and magnesium.

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The problem of inserts in diecastings

It is now common practice in the design of aluminum components produced by die casting to provide for the use of inserts of different material than the cast alloy.
This research was conducted with the aid of simulation software supplied to the research group. In this way it was possible to observe the progress of the filling of the impression as well as the solidification of the casting.
Article in Italian

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ZML: Versatility of simulation with ProCAST

After 5 years of concentrated and profitable use of ProCAST, ZML manages the simulation of filling and solidification as any other company activity, perfectly integrated in the cycle of products and dies development.
Moreover, thanks to this user-friendly software and to its calculation rapidity, we can evaluate in details all the small particulars which could escape through a traditional approach.
This analytic care in designing and engineering allowed ZML to broaden business horizons supplying systems for European automotive industry.

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Design and numerical validation of a die for diecasting Part 3

The design of a casting device by integrating traditional sizing and process simulation. Below is an application example of general design guidelines that can be shared for the realization of a technologically and therefore economically valid product.
Solidification analysis of the casting.
Article in Italian

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Design and numerical validation of a die for diecasting Part 2

The design of a casting device by integrating traditional sizing and process simulation. Below is an application example of general design guidelines that can be shared for the realization of a technologically and therefore economically valid product.
Filling analysis as the injection curve changes.
Article in Italian

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Design and numerical validation of a die for diecasting – Part 1

The design of a casting device by integrating traditional sizing and process simulation. Below is an application example of general design guidelines that can be shared for the realization of a technologically and therefore economically valid product.
Article in Italian

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ProCAST and CATIA integrated at GHIAL

GHIAL of Castegnato, Brescia, a well-known foundry in the field of die casting and gravity casting of aluminum alloy castings for the automotive sector, has been using a casting simulator since 2000.
The first important characteristic, ProCAST’s 2006 novelty, is the importation of the .model and .catpart native files from CAD CATIA. Lastly, GHIAL in the first place and all the foundries, die constructors and design engineers using CATIA will no longer encounter the typical problems associated with exporting geometries, from Iges, with its special tolerance, to STL which must in all cases be solid.

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FOMT: Core blowing and casting simulation

Used by Fomt for the design and production of core boxes for the distribution body of a braking system consisting of seventeen cores,
FOMT of Grugliasco, Turin, the foundry which has always been willing to invest in innovative technologies, is using the ProCAST casting simulator to its great satisfaction. The ease of use, the speed of calculation and the correspondence between the simulation and the foundry process have made it possible to achieve superior levels of quality and productivity, involving personnel – who now consider simulation to be normal activity but vital and rich in satisfaction.

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FAR Uses Simulation to Select the Right Die Casting Machine

New functionality within ESI ProCAST allows simulation to account for DCM characteristics. FAR successfully switched from one to two high-quality cavities and engineered a new die design for the right die casting machine at a minimum cost.

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ProCAST for Alupress

Alupress spa, based Bressanone (BZ), diecasting foundry since the beginning ready to invest in innovative technologies, bought the license of ProCAST, casting simulation software, after proving it for one year thanks to the flexible lease form.
In fact, this user-friendly software, its calculation quickness and the correspondence between simulation and foundry, confirmed the validity of ProCAST. It is interesting to highlight the particular technical solution chosen by Alupress for its own organising structure: floating license of ProCAST.
Thanks to this license it was possible to install the simulator on any company PC, so that each person could access to the simulation.

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Complete simulation of die container and pouring

From the analysis of more than 900 cases of diecasting simulations over a three-year period focusing attention on the filling phase, it emerged that the complete simulation of die, container and pouring should be considered to correspond to reality.
Article in Italian

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Central watch case sintering simulation – Software DEFORM

Since 2000 DEFORM has been simulating sintering processes. DEFORM allows using a tool owned by ECOTRE to create a counter deformation to correct the deformations obtained during sintering.
Article in Italian

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Pressing and Sintering Carbide Inserts – Software DEFORM

Computer simulation of the pressing and sintering process for tungsten carbide metal cutting inserts has been demonstrated. Modeling pressing and sintering using DEFORM™ can provide an opportunity for cost savings by improving the performance and reliability of the process.

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Fine Blanking simulation – Software DEFORM

The DEFORM™ System is capable of simulating blanking and piercing processes. The capabilities are included in the system, with no additional programming required. It is possible to develop different damage models and implement them via user subroutines for research applications.
While the determination of a material’s CDV is becoming more commonplace, it still requires a good understanding of the process. On the other hand, the methods used are fairly simple and straightforward.

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Virtual research saves time and real money. The Cromodora case

Working on simulation systems to measure (and modify) production processes
The more the hi-tech universe gets pushed, the more the way of thinking about it must keep up. Indeed, he must do at least two forward, overcoming it.
Article in Italian

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Simulation of hot extrusion processes – Software DEFORM

In this paper the problems of the extrusion process are discussed, the capabilities of DEFORM and the process developments are shown through several direct industrial cases of extrusion simulations.

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Recent advancements in state of the art aluminum extrusion simulations

Process modeling software based on the finite element method (FEM) is a valuable tool in analyzing metal forming processes [1,2]. Extrusion is one such process where important information can be gained by using simulation [3,4]. The material flow during extrusion can be analyzed, giving insight into the initial transient behavior in the die, weld seam formation, etc. Stresses in the die components can also be obtained using simulation, allowing die modifications to be analyzed to see if they would improve the stress state and make die cracking less likely.

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Influence of geometric dynamic recrystallization … – Software DEFORM

Finite element modeling of indirect extrusion
Multiple extrusion simulations were performed, using the DEFORM FEM code. The alloy studied was aluminum 6061, for which there are data on the thermomechanical material in DEFORM (flow stress, thermal conductivity, etc.).

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Hydroforming Simulation – Software DEFORM

DEFORM™-3D was used in these process simulations to analyze and understand the process. The results correlated well with actual production experience.
Process simulation can be used to understand the influence of preform, plunger displacement and pressure profile on the finished product.

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Pipe forming simulation – Software DEFORM

Since this study was performed, thousands of bomb cases have been produced using the thick walled pipe.
General Dynamics has reported that the defect rate due to insufficient nose material decreased by over 20%.
Problems related to under-gauge material in the nose region and pipe bulging have been essentially eliminated.

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Chevron Crack Analysis – Software DEFORM

DEFORM has been used successfully to assist designers in eliminating existing cracks in components by providing damage levels for alternative designs. Reducing predicted damage generally reduces the probability of fracture.
The most successful damage based fracture predictions have been cases where the stress state is primarily tensile. In cases with a predominately compressive stress, damage models still require development to be effective in a wide range of processes.

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Shape Drawing simulation – Software DEFORM

Shape drawing simulations of complex three-dimensional shapes can be run in minutes for simple shapes to hours for very complex processes. A wide range of critical process information can be obtained from this type of analysis. At the quotation phase, the correct number of drawing operations requiring shaped dies can be determined.
Stress analysis can be performed on the die to ensure that low cycle fatigue fractures do not form on the inside corners. A prediction of pull loads can be used to minimize wire breaks. All of this can be accomplished without spending the time and money for shop trials.

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Integrated casting and rolling simulation: process chaining approach

1. The rolling simulation with the standard approach is performed using a homogeneous value for the input data; there is important information about continuous casting that is lost, such as residual stresses and deformations
2. The new "process concatenation approach" wants to take into consideration the production operations before rolling: continuous casting, cooling and heating furnace to better adapt to reality
3. The ProCAST software directly exports the mesh and the results in the native DEFORM format
4. This approach is useful for the continuous casting and rolling industry to increase the quality and productivity of its plants, processes and products

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Shape Rolling module – Software DEFORM

SFTC offers a range of powerful modules specific to DEFORM. Unlike the general preprocessor, modules provide customized experiences tailored to modeling particular processes. The Shape Rolling module has recently been updated and introduced in the DEFORM multi-operation environment.

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Rotary tube piercing simulation – Software DEFORM

The Eulerian formulation is not well suited to this process due to the presence of free surfaces. The Lagrangian formulation is also not well suited to this process due to the rotational motion of the workpiece, changing contact and simulation time.
An ALE method was developed for this process to allow the radial and longitudinal motions to use the Lagrangian formulation and the circumferential motion to use the Eulerian formulation.

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Virtual rolling plant – Software DEFORM

Ecotre Valente srl (BS) informs that Ferriera Valsabbia's investment in the rolling plant is with Primetals (VA). It is with great pleasure to inform you that Primetals is our very satisfied customer and user of the DEFORM rolling software. All the profiles have already been tested and sampled in the DEFORM virtual rolling plant. Primetals is able to produce twin virtual profiles and plants of the real ones.
Article in Italian

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Rolling Applications – Software DEFORM

Voestalpine Schienen GmbH carried out this shape rolling analysis using DEFORM™-3D. This tramway rail section is employed in many European cities. Ten passes are involved and the final two passes employ free-wheeling side rolls.
In the next to last pass, the side roll forms the groove in the head of the rail. This side roll was cracking prematurely and DEFORM™-3D predicted uneven pressures acting on it’s top and bottom faces. Combining the predictions from DEFORM™ with Voestalpine’s experience, the material flow was improved to give more even pressures and thus extend the life of this form roller.

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Shape Rolling simulation – Software DEFORM

Manufacturers of rolled product have used DEFORM to optimize rolling profiles and process parameters for years. Three shape rolling methods are available in DEFORM: 3D Lagrangian (3D), ALE, and 2½D. The preprocessor has been enhanced, allowing the user to prepare models with all three methods. A new specialized brick meshing capability has been added to provide an excellent starting mesh for 3D and ALE.

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Validation of hot ring rolling industrial process 3D simulation

In this work a FE model, based on Deform 3D software, was tested versus experimental results acquired from an industrial plant. The accuracy of the FE model was analyzed through a dual comparison: by geometrical and by physical aspects. A good agreement was found between experimental and numerical results for both comparisons and, as a consequence, this code could be used in order to investigate and optimize the process parameters that characterize the ring rolling process in a virtual not expensive environment. The validated model will allow the studies of more environment-friend process configurations.

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Innovation in the virtual department of ingot casting, forging and heat treatment

The ProCAST ingot casting simulation software integrated with the DEFORM forging and heat treatment software
Article in Italian

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Cogging Simulation – Software DEFORM

The DEFORM™ System contains a special pre-processor that enables the engineer to set up the complete cogging schedule in one session.
Standard industry billet, die and manipulator shapes are included and the CAD interface allows additional geometry input. Process inputs include number of heats, number of passes, rotation information, bite size and time between bites/passes.

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Process Simulation Applications in the Medical Industry – Software DEFORM

The examples have shown that computer simulation of metal forming and heat treating operations is definitely not restricted to the automotive and aerospace organizations. The medical industry can certainly benefit from reducing trial and error, not interrupting production and reduced product time to market that computer simulation offers.

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Orbital Forming Assembly – Software DEFORM

Simulation has shown that the orbital forming assembly process can benefit from a decreased feed per revolution. Decreased forming contact area requires a smaller forming load and press size. The flange provides a greater restraining force because the springback is reduced when the forming tool is removed.
However, if the feed rate becomes too low, inward material flow can occur which is undesirable. In this case, the v2 feed profile will be used because it provides the lowest feed rate at the end of the stroke without producing a defect.

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Flashless forging development – Software DEFORM

The simulation is a DEFORM™-2D axisymmetric problem with the tooling considered as rigid and only heat transfer to the tooling being simulated. The component was previously manufactured as a hot forging in the traditional manner with flash on a 1300 ton mechanical press, as shown.
By using DEFORM™-2D to assist in the design, a flashless version of the component has been developed, which also benefits from a reduced material volume in the central web – a resulting increase in material yield from 70% to 84%.

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Lap formation in a Hot Forging – Software DEFORM

DEFORM-3D was used in these process simulations to analyze and understand the process. The results correlated well with actual production experience.
Adding the bust operation eliminated this defect as a result of better volume distribution going into the blocking operation as shown. Process simulation can be used to understand the influence of volume distribution on both defect formation and product cost.
A flash region that is wide in one region and thin in another indicates a less than optimum preform design.

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Forging die wear – Software DEFORM

Existing die wear models are empirical in nature. While this is a limitation to the purist, they can be calibrated to provide useful results in a production environment. With a reasonable model, DEFORM can be used to optimize tool life for various preform designs. Die life failure analysis can contribute to very significant cost savings through increased die life without expensive production trials.

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Rolled Preforms for Forging – Software DEFORM

DEFORM simulations provided LC Manufacturing with a means to optimize part shape and avoid defects in both cross rolling and forging. For the first time ever, they were able to predict cross roll output and redesign these complex tools before physical trials. Simulation enhanced their ability to create complex preforms that could be utilized in down-stream forging sequences.
Continuous process improvement, with the aid of process simulation, resulted in a very successful product. Material use was reduced by over 30% in going from a straight cut bar to an optimized preform. LC Manufacturing has won substantial new business from their customer as a result of this success.

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Gear Blank Forging – Software DEFORM

In this example, supplied by Caterpillar, DEFORM-3D was used to evaluate various input materials in the production of a gear blank. Effective strain was used to determine if input stock with a lower initial deformation would meet the final part requirements. By accumulating strain throughout the process, the final strain distribution can be determined.

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Hot Forged Weld Yoke – Software DEFORM

The contributions of process simulation in the development of multiple cavity forgings have been well documented. This case study illustrates how DEFORM contributes to controlling cost in a tight lead time environment for a simpler process.
Tight schedules are the order of the day. Very few manufacturers have the luxury of an increased selling price to compensate for added costs associated with conservative material sizing, recutting dies or shop trials.
With profit margins as tight as schedules, it is critical to optimize the process prior to committing cash to the production trials. DEFORM-3D is a valuable tool to provide feedback to the forging designer early in the process. Even more important, when defects that would result in scrap are observed, they can be avoided completely.

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Suspension Lug Platter – Software DEFORM

Throughout the process redesign, simulation was used to test concepts prior to production trials. In the redesigned process, part location in each station was considered. Total deformation energy was calculated to estimate the number of blows required and provide a relative measurement of process efficiency. The dies were designed by Delfasco and New Die staff, while the DEFORM-3D simulations were run at SFTC within the PRO-FAST Project.

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Comparisons of Computer Fluid Dynamic Software Programs applied to Jewelry Investment Casting Process

Computer-based casting simulation as ‘virtual casting’, it facilitates us to optimize the process parameters to beneficially find out the suitable working model of the casting process. To obtain more precise and realistic solution, the profound understanding in the fundamental concept of simulation software is necessary.

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Axle Beam Forging – Software DEFORM

Process simulation can be used to determine the root cause of a defect that occurs during a multiple operation forming process. A major commercial vehicle part manufacturer discovered a problem with an axle beam forging. A lap (or fold) defect was evident on the finish forged product. History and experience guided the designers to concentrate their efforts to remove this lap on the blocker and finisher operations. In this case, modifications to the final operations did not result in a defect-free forging.

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Multiple Operation Hot Forging – Software DEFORM

The entire process was set up in one session, using material data from the DEFORM™ database, and was run a number of times with different initial billet temperatures and friction coefficients. The die movement control applied depends on the type of press machinery being simulated.

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Automotive Hot Forging – Software DEFORM

Process simulation has found many uses within UEF. Process optimization can be achieved quickly and efficiently through the use of simulation software.
Reduced product development costs and more ‘right first time’ tooling can provide significant savings.
State of the art process simulation can enable designers to explore and evaluate more challenging components that would otherwise have been possible in the past without the cost, time and risks associated with full scale, physical forging development trials.

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Aluminum Impact Extrusion – Software DEFORM

Process simulation is used to understand why a defect or problem occurs during the manufacturing process. In an ideal world, the design process would not allow these problems to ever hit the shop floor. Leading companies, such as JLO Metal Products in Chicago, Illinois have used DEFORM™ to analyze aluminum impact extrusions at the quotation stage.

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Increase of die life and part quality with DEFORM

1. The DEFORM hot forming simulation software showed the problem on the die. Excellent alignment of “Simulation Software Results” with “Reality”
2. The simulation allows to identify the defects obtained during forming, to understand their causes and then to take the right corrective actions. Positive sampling at the first shot, if simulated
3. Reliable raw material supply
4. Start-up times reduced to a minimum: bar and positioning already defined
5. Machine definition required: sampling and production planning
6. Increased die life thanks to positive samples that do not require subsequent modifications and repairs, even with possible welding
7. Estimate Reliability Verification
8. Shorter cycle time
(Article in Italian)

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Defects-in-hot-forming-Resolution-with-DEFORM-Software

1. The DEFORM hot forming simulation software showed the problem on the part. Excellent alignment of “Simulation Software Results” with “Reality”
2. The simulation made it possible to identify the defects obtained during forming, to understand their causes and then to take the right corrective actions. Positive sampling at the first shot, if simulated
3. Reliable raw material supply
4. Start-up times reduced to a minimum: bar and positioning already defined
5. Machine definition required: sampling and production planning
6. Increased die life thanks to positive samples that do not require subsequent modifications and repairs, even with possible welding
7. Estimate Reliability Verification
8. Less cycle time ....

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Incremental Sheet Metal Forming simulation – Software DEFORM

Using DEFORM™, the OSU/ERC team was able to design a progressive die sequence to make the cupped part in 10 stations. While an extra station was required in this example, the methodology was shown to be sound.
Using this methodology with experienced designers should result in fewer operations. Figure 4 shows the comparison between the emperical design and the design conducted using FEM. It can be noted that the FEM designed progression exhibits reductions that are more consistent from one station to the next. More aggressive wall thinning limits in the early stations could have been used.
This example illustrates how DEFORM™ is capable of optimizing a progressive die sequence.

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3D numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes using solid element

This paper addresses two issues in the 3-D numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes. One is the implementation of an effective solid element on very thin metal sheet under the bending and drawing operations. The other is the use of parallel computational scheme to reduce the simulation time. Possible volumetric and shear locking phenomena for the thin structure with solid element are avoided by adopting the assumed strain concept.

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Radiant tube forming simulation – Software DEFORM

The case study was supplied by Nicro SpA of Vailate, Italy. It was performed in partnership with the University of Brescia and ECOTRE Valente Srl of Brescia, Italy.
ECOTRE is the exclusive distributor of the DEFORM system in Italy.
SFTC and ECOTRE would like to thank Mr. Marena Gianni for sharing this DEFORM experience.

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Warm Formed Magnesium Case

Magnesium alloys can provide great weight reductions in components, which would otherwise be made from steel or polymeric materials. Those used in current structural parts tend to be die-castings, which are prone to porosity and are usually quite bulky in nature.
After 3 seconds of heating the blank in the tooling, DEFORM™ predicted the temperature distribution prior to forming ...

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The materials and the design of the die in a critical manufacturing step of an automotive shock absorber cap

The industrial drawing of automotive shock absorber endcaps caused wear and radial brittle fractures of the tool steel dies. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of the process showed that this was caused by high contact and hoop stresses on the die. Such difficulties are usually solved by expensive changes in the die material, but a change in the punch design was proposed as a simpler and cheaper solution. The new punch geometries were employed in a FEM simulation of the drawing, indicating much lower contact and hoop stresses. The implementation of the solution eliminated the wear and brittle fracture problems.

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Virtual press for die testing: product quality and equipment life – Software DEFORM

1. The DEFORM software of simulation metal sheet forming, deep drawing, progressive forming, blanking and heat treatment showed the problems on the part. Excellent alignment of “Simulation Software Results” with “Reality”
2. The simulation allows to identify the defects obtained during forming and shearing, to understand the causes and then to take the right corrective actions. Positive sampling at the first shot, if simulated
3. Reliable raw material supply
4. Start-up times reduced to a minimum: coils, strips, sheets already defined
5. Machine definition required: sampling and production planning
6. Increased die life thanks to positive samples that do not require subsequent modifications and repairs, even with any welding. Wear, elastic deformations of the die, cracks identified by DEFORM
7. Estimate Reliability Verification
8. Shorter cycle time
Article in Italian

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Optimizing Forming Load – Software DEFORM

The final design was one of a number of options simulated using DEFORMTM. The preform shape was adjusted until all critical corners were filling the die cavity at the same time during the die stroke. This optimum preform design resulted in a load that was significantly lower than the original design and the two intermediate improvements.
The final load was 515 tons, or a 22% improvement over the first preform design. It is clear that this process will be more robust and experience longer die life.

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Bolt Progression Load Optimization with DEFORM

Bolt Progression
A study was conducted on the manufacture of a flanged shoulder bolt blank on a two die – three blow header. The method of manufacture is a common one that includes trap extrusion of the initial wire, a cone upset and final forming of the head without the use of sliding dies.
In this case, the wire diameter was varried from .325” diameter thru .425” diameter, with the subsequent processes adjusted to accommodate this variation.

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Fastener Lap – Software DEFORM

During the development of a heading progression, the designer typically balances many complex parameters to accomplish a workable process. These parameters include the number of intended operations, required volumetric displacements, final part geometry, starting material size, available forming equipment and the behavior of the workpiece. Frequently, variations have existed between the designer’s concept of the progression and the actual shop trial. When unexpected metal flow occurs, this can result in a part with unfill, excessive loads, die breakage, laps, ductile fracture or other production problems. All of these problems are very costly.

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Ductile fracture during cold forming – Software DEFORM

Fracture of the workpiece is a frequent subject of concern during large deformation cold and warm forming processes. Damage factor, as suggested by Cockcroft and Latham, can be used to predict fracture in cold forming operations. A number of Damage factors have been investigated by researchers, with the Cockcroft-Latham Damage Factor demonstrating good correlation with experimental data when the fracture occurs in a predominately tensile state of stress.

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Simulation of a Staked Fastener – Software DEFORM

The Fabristeel Corporation of Taylor, Michigan used computer simulation to develop their self-piercing mechanically staked fasteners for sheet metal parts.
The patented drawform stud was fully developed using simulation. The development process included cold forming the stud, an installation process and a pullout test. The entire manufacturing process was developed with the aid of process simulation. Based on damage values in the sheet, the original design was modified to prevent fracture in the panel.

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Nut heat treatment simulation – Software DEFORM

1. The simulation software must virtualize the microstructure of the material and the metallurgy of the heat treatment cycle.
2. Objective of the heat treatment: to achieve the required microstructure and mechanical performance, guaranteeing dimensions and residual stresses in the component
3. Possible problems of the hardening heat treatment: deformations and microstructures that do not comply with the regulations
4. With the DEFORM software it is possible to predict microstructure and deformations of the piece during heat treatment.

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Forged Electrical Connector – Software DEFORM

This case study illustrates how DEFORM is highly beneficial in dimensional control and cost reduction tasks.
Tight schedules are the order of the day in the competitive forging industry. Very few manufacturers have the luxury of an increased selling price to compensate for the added costs associated with conservative material sizing, die rework or expensive shop trials.

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Some examples of Ecotre Valente’s activity: Simulation & Vacuum


Case 1
Die casting simulation is finally complete with ProCAST. Virtualization of the diecasting machine

The occurrence of cases of mismatch between simulation and reality led Ecotre to activate a project in which over 900 diecasting simulations were analyzed over a period of 3 years. It was evaluated how correctly the casting simulation software predicted the way to fill the mold cavity and the gas porosities in the piece ....

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Demand for the “virtual factory” rises

Ecotre Valente from Brescia distributes simulation software. Growing more than 20% annually in the last 5 years
It is a matter of time. The simulation software for casting, forging, rolling, heat treatment and machining allow to expand or compress it: ingots of tons that take days, to give just one example, can be reduced and evaluated in a few minutes; conversely, steps of a few thousandths can be analyzed in hundreds of seconds. But the time factor today is also the key to the diffusion process of these virtualization programs of the production cycle. "It's only a matter of time: even in the world of steel, the tools that allow the virtual reality of production processes will be widespread."
Article in Italian

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ProCAST: introduction of press selection

ESI ProCAST 2016 is the introduction of the machine selection workflow that draws on a dedicated database for High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) machines, including the Colosio machines.
The new functionality enables the user to define the operating point and operating zone for any machine, using the Pressure (P)- Flow Rate(Q)² graph. This information is linked to ProCAST’s solver to achieve virtual piston control in real time.

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Al Group Alusuisse: Modelling of the Thixoforming Process

Introduction
Thixoforming process
Physical phenomena
Process Simulation
Validation
Applications / examples

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Simulation and Innovation Award with DEFORM Software: PRIMETALS TECHNOLOGIES ITALY

Elimination of scraps and defects with the DEFORM simulation software
The webinar dedicated to the novelties in Simulation of Hot and Cold Forming, Coining, Drawing, Rolling, Forging, Shape Rolling, Extrusion, Sheet Metal Forming, Shearing, Welding, Additive Manufacturing, Heat Treatments was held on Thursday 1 July 2021 and Machining with the new DEFORM 2021 Software and organized by the Brescia-based Ecotre Valente. The wide participation of the experts gave rise to an afternoon of meeting and exchange on the state of the art of metallurgical process simulation, on the criticalities encountered during production and on the prediction and resolution of defects thanks to computer simulation to obtain a high metallurgical quality.
This year Ecotre, for the "Simulation and Innovation" award, has decided to reward those companies that have distinguished themselves for their ability to innovate in the sector of presses, machines and systems. Among the 4 awarded companies: PRIMETALS TECHNOLOGIES ITALY
Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente, concluded the day with these words: “We are in a moment in which the need to obtain components without defects is essential, while at the same time reducing production times and costs. The DEFORM metallurgical process simulation software is able to predict a priori the behavior of the metal during the process, evaluating defects on the product and equipment, with the aim of obtaining the maximum in terms of machine and process efficiency. ".

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Simulation and Innovation Award with DEFORM Software: AUTOMAZIONI INDUSTRIALI SRL

Elimination of scraps and defects with the DEFORM simulation software
The webinar dedicated to the novelties in Simulation of Hot and Cold Forming, Coining, Drawing, Rolling, Forging, Shape Rolling, Extrusion, Sheet Metal Forming, Shearing, Welding, Additive Manufacturing, Heat Treatments was held on Thursday 1 July 2021 and Machining with the new DEFORM 2021 Software and organized by the Brescia-based Ecotre Valente. The wide participation of the experts gave rise to an afternoon of meeting and exchange on the state of the art of metallurgical process simulation, on the criticalities encountered during production and on the prediction and resolution of defects thanks to computer simulation to obtain a high metallurgical quality.
This year Ecotre, for the "Simulation and Innovation" award, has decided to reward those companies that have distinguished themselves for their ability to innovate in the sector of presses, machines and systems. Among the 4 awarded companies: AUTOMAZIONI INDUSTRIALI SRL.
Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente, concluded the day with these words: “We are in a moment in which the need to obtain components without defects is essential, while at the same time reducing production times and costs. The DEFORM metallurgical process simulation software is able to predict a priori the behavior of the metal during the process, evaluating defects on the product and equipment, with the aim of obtaining the maximum in terms of machine and process efficiency. ".

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Simulation and Innovation Award with DEFORM Software: MECOLPRESS SPA

Elimination of scraps and defects with the DEFORM simulation software
The webinar dedicated to the novelties in Simulation of Hot and Cold Forming, Coining, Drawing, Rolling, Forging, Shape Rolling, Extrusion, Sheet Metal Forming, Shearing, Welding, Additive Manufacturing, Heat Treatments was held on Thursday 1 July 2021 and Machining with the new DEFORM 2021 Software and organized by the Brescia-based Ecotre Valente. The wide participation of the experts gave rise to an afternoon of meeting and exchange on the state of the art of metallurgical process simulation, on the criticalities encountered during production and on the prediction and resolution of defects thanks to computer simulation to obtain a high metallurgical quality.
This year Ecotre, for the "Simulation and Innovation" award, has decided to reward those companies that have distinguished themselves for their ability to innovate in the sector of presses, machines and systems. Among the 4 awarded companies: MECOLPRESS SPA.
Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente, concluded the day with these words: “We are in a moment in which the need to obtain components without defects is essential, while at the same time reducing production times and costs. The DEFORM metallurgical process simulation software is able to predict a priori the behavior of the metal during the process, evaluating defects on the product and equipment, with the aim of obtaining the maximum in terms of machine and process efficiency. ".

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Simulation and Innovation Award with DEFORM Software: CARLO SALVI

Elimination of scraps and defects with the DEFORM simulation software
The webinar dedicated to the novelties in Simulation of Hot and Cold Forming, Coining, Drawing, Rolling, Forging, Shape Rolling, Extrusion, Sheet Metal Forming, Shearing, Welding, Additive Manufacturing, Heat Treatments was held on Thursday 1 July 2021 and Machining with the new DEFORM 2021 Software and organized by the Brescia-based Ecotre Valente. The wide participation of the experts gave rise to an afternoon of meeting and exchange on the state of the art of metallurgical process simulation, on the criticalities encountered during production and on the prediction and resolution of defects thanks to computer simulation to obtain a high metallurgical quality.
This year Ecotre, for the "Simulation and Innovation" award, has decided to reward those companies that have distinguished themselves for their ability to innovate in the sector of presses, machines and systems. Among the 4 awarded companies: CARLO SALVI SPA.
Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente, concluded the day with these words: “We are in a moment in which the need to obtain components without defects is essential, while at the same time reducing production times and costs. The DEFORM metallurgical process simulation software is able to predict a priori the behavior of the metal during the process, evaluating defects on the product and equipment, with the aim of obtaining the maximum in terms of machine and process efficiency. ".

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Simulation and Foundry Youth Award: Premiazione TECNOFORM

In Brescia, the prize dedicated to young talents in foundry simulation
The three young people that Ecotre Valente Srl, a Brescia-based metallurgical and process specialist, awarded on Thursday 27 May during the webinar dedicated to casting simulation with QuikCAST Light, QuikCAST and ProCAST software are just over twenty years old.
This is Marcello Milesi, a young 21 year old from Bergamo, of GMP Group Srl, leader in the production of alloy wheels; by Pietro Faccondini of Fonderia Morri Snc of Rimini and by Mirko Fiscato of Tecnoform Srl of Longare, Vicenza. An award that recognizes in young people skills, growth objectives in the world of work and which expresses the innovative and competitive potential of the new generations.
"In this period marked by the pandemic, young people have been able to bring innovation, skills and a positive impact into the companies throughout the metallurgical sector - said Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente - The hope is that more and more young people approach the world of metallurgical process simulation, a fundamental tool in the company for reducing costs, times and scrap. "

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Simulation and Foundry Youth Award: GMP Group

In Brescia, the prize dedicated to young talents in foundry simulation
The three young people that Ecotre Valente Srl, a Brescia-based metallurgical and process specialist, awarded on Thursday 27 May during the webinar dedicated to casting simulation with QuikCAST Light, QuikCAST and ProCAST software are just over twenty years old.
This is Marcello Milesi, a young 21 year old from Bergamo, of GMP Group Srl, leader in the production of alloy wheels; by Pietro Faccondini of Fonderia Morri Snc of Rimini and by Mirko Fiscato of Tecnoform Srl of Longare, Vicenza. An award that recognizes in young people skills, growth objectives in the world of work and which expresses the innovative and competitive potential of the new generations.
"In this period marked by the pandemic, young people have been able to bring innovation, skills and a positive impact into the companies throughout the metallurgical sector - said Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente - The hope is that more and more young people approach the world of metallurgical process simulation, a fundamental tool in the company for reducing costs, times and scrap. "

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Simulation and Foundry Youth Award: Fonderia Morri

In Brescia, the prize dedicated to young talents in foundry simulation
The three young people that Ecotre Valente Srl, a Brescia-based metallurgical and process specialist, awarded on Thursday 27 May during the webinar dedicated to casting simulation with QuikCAST Light, QuikCAST and ProCAST software are just over twenty years old.
This is Marcello Milesi, a young 21 year old from Bergamo, of GMP Group Srl, leader in the production of alloy wheels; by Pietro Faccondini of Fonderia Morri Snc of Rimini and by Mirko Fiscato of Tecnoform Srl of Longare, Vicenza. An award that recognizes in young people skills, growth objectives in the world of work and which expresses the innovative and competitive potential of the new generations.
"In this period marked by the pandemic, young people have been able to bring innovation, skills and a positive impact into the companies throughout the metallurgical sector - said Lorenzo Valente, CEO of Ecotre Valente - The hope is that more and more young people approach the world of metallurgical process simulation, a fundamental tool in the company for reducing costs, times and scrap. "

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The HPDC School: Let’s start the Open Seminars

In parallel to the fifth edition of the training course for technologists of diecasting, the school launches a program of technical seminars free online and open to all. Why the transfer of skills continue, and not just for students! The first online appointment to mark in your diary is May 12 at 10:00 with "Shrinkage porosity defects: casting simulation and tomography ", by Ecotre Valente, in collaboration with AQM, during which it will come treated the issue of defects in diecastings, describing the simulation software able to predict the shrinkage porosity and focusing on tomographic techniques in the diecasting sector.

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Stepped Pin – Load & Corner Fill – Software DEFORM

Process simulation was run using DEFORM to study the die fill and load requirements. The designer’s suspicions were confirmed.
The simulation allowed the designer to study the load at various forming steps and compare design alternatives for both die fill and load. The outside corner of the smallest step is the most difficult feature to fill using this process.
A redesigned progression was developed and confirmed using DEFORM to quantify the results prior to making dies.

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Simulation of heat treatment of jominy specimen to improve quality of automotive gear components

In order to validate heat treatment cycle, microstructure and mechanical properties, Jominy test has been virtualized into heat treatment simulation software. Real Jominy tests have been transferred inside simulation software for different steel grades used for automotive gear box application.
A model to forecast microstructure and mechanical properties for Jominy specimen is built and benchmarked with experimental data. Alignment between simulation results and reality allows to transfer model definition from Jominy samples to complete real components, improving quality assurance capability for real process thanks to usage of heat treatment cycle virtualization for gear box realized with different steel grades.

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The influence of heat treatment on dies

The study, carried out thanks to the commitment of the engineering team of Ecotre-Valente of Brescia, made it possible to quantify, through information technology, what happens in reality, using different extinguishing means on the same mold.
The heat treatment of Quenching and Tempering aims to confer the maximum potential of the mechanical and metallurgical characteristics developed by the chemistry of steel " Article in Italian

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Ecotre-Techne: simulation and tomography

Create virtual twins. Also virtualization did leaps and bounds, permitting to recreate with a precision that touches 100% an object directly on the monitor of a pc.
Article in Italian

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The added value of casting and vacuum simulation

We recently participated in the technical seminar "Simulation & Vacuum Metallurgy Specialist", a meeting and training day organized annually by Ecotre Valente S.r.l. of Brescia. The seminar, now in its seventh edition, took place in the evocative setting of the Mille Miglia Museum in Brescia,

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Ecotre-Colosio-ESI win the METEF innovation award

ESI’s exclusive Italian Casting Agent Ecotre Valente s.r.l, Italian Die Casting Machine manufacturer Colosio s.r.l and ESI Group were jointly awarded the METEF 2017 International Innovation Award in the “Machinery” category - For the development of an integrated simulation software / press configuration aimed at reaching the cost and quality requirements for a specified die cast product. From being empiric and approximate, the choice of a press becomes objective and precise, aligned with the characteristics of a real press. Ecotre-ESI & Colosio were located adjacently at the METEF exhibition to display this technological innovation to the die casting community.

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